How to expand openness in today's situation of anti-globalization and protectionism? At the 5th China and Globalization Forum on the 14th, experts at the conference believed that the current stagnation and sluggishness of globalization is actually a challenge to the rules of the international multilateral trading system, and the reform of the World Trade Organization (WTO) is adjustment and development. An important part of globalization.
Justin Vaisse, the director of the Paris Peace Forum, believes that not every country has the ability to cope with challenges in the anti-globalization trend, so it is necessary to maintain the WTO mechanism to better regulate global trade.
However, the participating experts also believe that it is necessary to reform existing WTO rules while maintaining certain principles.
In November last year, the Ministry of Commerce announced China's three principles on WTO reform. It believed that WTO reform should safeguard the core values of the multilateral trading system, safeguard the development interests of developing members, and follow a consensus decision-making mechanism.
Should pay more attention to the relationship between geopolitics and trade
Vais said that historically, geopolitical constraints and struggles have led to the footsteps of globalization. Therefore, in order to avoid repeating the same mistakes, all parties should pay more attention to the relationship between geopolitics and trade.
Chen Deming, former minister of the Ministry of Commerce and president of the China Association of Enterprises with Foreign Investment, gave an example of the interests and considerations behind the WTO reforms at the end of last year's G20 summit in Buenos Aires. He said that the original summit plan to draft a statement in the joint communique on WTO reform, but because the parties are inconsistent in the direction of reform and their respective interests, the parties finally propose to discuss the draft with China and the United States. In the end, the communique wrote that the current system does not meet its objectives and there is room for improvement. Therefore, we support the necessary reforms of the WTO, improve its functions, and will assess progress at the next summit.
Chen Deming also said that in the discussion of the Sino-US plan, countries such as India and South Africa disagreed with the expression "Reform". They hope to use "Improve". They do not need much reform, I am afraid The interests of developing countries have been reformed. Eventually China mediated and made an agreement on how to reform the reforms at the G19 summit in Japan in 2019.
Correct understanding in reform"Not breaking”
Chen Jian, former deputy minister of the Ministry of Commerce, pointed out the existing rules-basedinternational tradeSeveral shortcomings of the system. He believes that the WTO rules are not fair and reasonable, and the existing system adopts uniform rules, but it faces members with different levels of development and even wide disparities. At the same time, the existing system is not yet democratic and equitable and the balance of inclusiveness. "The interests of some small countries such as developing countries have not been fully considered. Moreover, the current differential treatment is not enough to resolve the fairness of the economies in the right to development," he said.
In addition, Chen Jian also believes that the design of the rules of the WTO is still not scientific: "At present, the rules of the WTO cannot eliminate the different interpretations of the trade principles by the parties, nor can they eliminate the behavior of the parties to undermine the rules."
Chen Deming added: "One of the shortcomings of the WTO is that many rules must be adopted by 164 members, but the current international geopolitics and economy have changed. The development of high technology has brought the information age to the world. The liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment pursued by the organization is far from being realized, so WTO reform is still needed."
So how can we change it?
Chen Jian believes: "The first is to uphold the basic principles of the WTO, that is, to safeguard the core values of the multilateral trading system, safeguard the interests of developing countries, and adhere to the principle of consensus."
He stressed that it is necessary to correctly understand the concept of "not breaking or not standing". In addition to the "breaking" of reform, we must pay more attention to "standing." He said: "The word 'breaking' is the beginning, and ‘立’ is also in it, because now I am afraid that ‘breaking’ will cause greater chaos in the world and have a huge impact on human development.”
Chen Jian also said that the spirit of the “Belt and Road Initiative” should be integrated into the practice of globalization today to promote the development of globalization.
(Article source: First Finance)