"China's financial industry is a financial industry dominated by indirect financing, and the equity financing market is underdeveloped. Under the framework of indirect financing, it is also medium and large.bankAs the main body, the policy framework, institutional framework, technical capabilities and internal and external incentive and restraint mechanisms of commercial banks are also insufficient. Bai Hexiang, deputy of the National People's Congress and president of the People's Bank of China in Guangzhou, said in an interview with the Financial Times reporter that the key to the structural reform of the financial supply side was broken.
Then, specific to the banking industry, where is the focus of the structural reform of the financial supply side? How will the important role of supporting the development of the real economy be reflected?
During the two sessions of the National People's Congress, many experts interviewed agreed that the structural reform of the financial supply side should be based on demand as an “anchor”, accurately matching the economic and financial needs of the entity, and the reform direction will not “go off” to achieve actual results. At present, the financing needs of private small and micro enterprises in the real economy can be said to be the most urgent. Building a multi-level, wide-coverage and differentiated banking system will inevitably become an important part of the supply-side structural reform of the banking industry.
Banking system focuses on stock structure optimization
This year's two sessions, the party secretary of the People's Bank of China,Bank of ChinaInsuranceGuo Shuqing, chairman of the Supervisory Management Committee, said in the "Ministerial Channel" that solving the problem of financing difficulties and financing for private small and micro enterprises is closely related to the structural reform of the financial supply side. The financial industry institutional system, market system and product system must be Make some adjustments.
Specific to the banking industry, it is no exception. The supply-side structural reform is inevitably a systematic project, and the first priority is the further optimization and improvement of the banking institution system.
“Optimization of the stock structure should be the main direction.” Zeng Gang, director of the Banking Research Center of the National Financial and Development Laboratory, told the Financial Times: “At present, the number of banking institutions in China has been quite large. Therefore, the focus of optimizing the banking system should be Placed on the optimization of the stock structure."
This judgment is not without basis. “Now, the number of institutions in the banking industry is not very small.” Guo Shuqing said in the “Ministerial Channel” that in the past 10 years, the share of large banks in the entire banking industry has dropped from over 50% to around 38%, and the proportion of large banks is The number of small and medium banks is increasing.
So how does the optimization of the stock structure work? Zeng Gang believes that this should be considered mainly from four directions: First, let the small and medium-sized banks that have not accounted for a large proportion hold their main business and serve the local; second, let the large banks moderately focus their business on private enterprises and small and micro enterprises; The third is to add some distinctive, differentiated and innovative banking institutions; the fourth is to withdraw orReorganizationSome inefficient, high-risk, poorly-serving banking institutions will issue the released financial licenses to institutions that have the ability to serve the real economy, and use market-oriented forces to improve the efficiency of small private enterprises.
“The proportion of small and medium-sized banks represented by private banks and community banks in China is already high. The focus is not on making a fuss about quantity, but on quality, that is, how to better support their steady development.” Renmin University of Finance, China Renmin University Dong Xiwei, vice president of the institute, expressed similar views. He believes that in the next step, all parties should review relevant policies, adjust and improve them, strive to broaden the sources of debt of small and medium-sized banks, support small and medium-sized banks to replenish capital through multiple channels, and guide small and medium-sized banks. Carry out good product innovation; encourage small and medium banks to apply for relevant business qualifications.
Solving information asymmetry is the key
As a supplier of financial services, in order to provide financial services efficiently and accurately, it is important to know the demand side information. This includes not only the financial services needs on the demand side, but also the risk points that should be taken seriously.
It is particularly urgent to improve the ability and willingness of the banking industry to serve the real economy and solve the problem of asymmetry in information between banks and enterprises. As Guo Shuqing said in the “Ministerial Channel”, “a huge challenge for banks is to obtain sufficient information. ".
Ye Qing, member of the Standing Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, vice chairman of the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce, and Chairman of the Beijing Yeshi Enterprise Group Co., Ltd., said in an interview with the Financial Times: "Some small and micro enterprises do not know where to go for loans. When thinking of pawn shops and microfinance companies, banks actually have these products. Therefore, it is recommended that banks properly provide loan counseling to small and micro enterprises to tell them how they can lend money and ease information asymmetry."
In this regard, Zhang Zhifu, deputy of the National People's Congress and secretary of the party committee and president of the People's Bank of China Nanchang Central Branch, put forward in his motion: "It is recommended that the National Development and Reform Commission and the People's Bank of China take the lead, the State Administration of Taxation, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Justice, the National Bureau of Statistics, and the State. The General Administration of Industry and Commerce, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, etc., cooperate with relevant ministries and commissions that reflect the information on business operations, accelerate the use of the national data sharing and exchange platform system, promote the integration of data between small and micro enterprises in various departments, fully improve the utilization efficiency of big data, and ensure information security. Under the premise, it provides information support for banking institutions to review loans, promotes batch credit review, and realizes the “reduction and efficiency increase” of banking institutions and small and micro enterprises.
Innovating and perfecting the product system has a long way to go
"I suggest that banks increase financial products, such as medium and long-term loans, which will help stabilize confidence and solidify the company." Ye Qing said that at present, many private enterprises can only obtain short-term financing, which is not conducive to enterprise development.
The experts interviewed believe that the banking industry supplies financial services and financial products. Therefore, the focus of improving the economic ability of the service entity is ultimately to settle on how to innovate and improve products and services, especially for private small and micro enterprises.
"Because small and micro enterprises are small in scale and large in quantity, using traditional single-family approval and single-family credit-granting models, it is sure that the cost will be too high and it will be difficult to make profits because there is no scale effect. Therefore, banking institutions should research and develop. New technical means."Bank of CommunicationsIn an interview with the Financial Times reporter, Tang Jianwei, chief researcher of the Financial Research Center, said that financial technology such as big data, cloud computing and the Internet were being acquired in batches.CreditIn terms of approval and risk control, it can significantly help commercial banks to improve efficiency and reduce costs, so that lending to small and micro enterprises can achieve economies of scale and sustained profitability.
Guo Shuqing introduced in the “Ministerial Channel” that many banks have made great progress in recent years, such as in large banks.ICBC,Construction bankIn medium-sized banksBank of JiangsuAnd online merchant banks, micro-banks, and so on.
(Article source: Financial Times)