As everyone knows, there is a worry about aging in Japan, where the economy is highly developed. The daily economic news was reported in yesterday’s (27th) push. At present, about one-third of the workers on construction sites in Japan are over 55 years old. In order to introduce a shortage of young labor, Japan even spares the rigorous Immigration policy.
In order to better cope with the aging of the economyLong andWith the pressure from social welfare spending, the Japanese government has recently proposed the goal of building a society that will never retire.
According to the Nihon Keizai Shimbun reported on the 26th, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare provides policy guidance to about 120,000 companies across Japan to help older workers over the age of 65 to continue their careers and receive fair and reasonable treatment as a “never retired” society. The final realization of the goal lays the foundation.
The Wall Street Journal pointed out that with the efforts of Japanese society in terms of policies and regulations, people's mentality and public opinion guidance, it is not surprising that the elderly in the 90s and 90s will stick to their jobs in the future.
At the same time, in South Korea, due to the very serious phenomenon of old age poverty, people have to work until the age of 71 to really rest.
When the Chinese aunts were screaming at the grandchildren and dancing in the square, the elderly in Japan and South Korea had to continue working, which is about to become a reality in the near future.
Japan wants to extend the number of years of employment
Every time Xiaobian (micro-signal: nbdnews) noticed that the Ministry of Health and Labor provided the company with policy guidance and advice, not mandatory laws and regulations, but The goal of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare to promote reform is very clear.
At present, Japanese law stipulates that 60 years old is the retirement age, but by the age of 65, the pension can be truly paid. Japan’s “Elderly Employment Security Law” stipulates that companies must ensure that people with the willingness and ability to work are employed at the age of 65.
According to the law, about 80% of companies in Japan have taken measures to extend employment. However, the Japanese Cabinet Office found that about 65% of the 65- to 69-year-olds want to work, but the employment rate of these people is only 44%.
To this end, the Japanese government has decided to provide 350 professionally qualified consultants to promote the extension of the employment system for enterprises and achieve the social goal of “never retiring”. The consultants work for companies with more than 31 employees and require employees to retire at the age of 65, with a total of 120,000.
At present, although the Japanese economic community adopts a cautious attitude toward the abolition of the retirement age limit, the number of young people continues to decrease because of the declining birth rate. The need to return the elderly to the labor market will become higher and higher in the future. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has also tried to increase the employment of older people in age-free employment within the framework of the current labor law.
Silver-haired office workers will become the norm
Japan is the country with the highest degree of aging in the G7 industrial group. According to data released by the OECD OECD in 2016, the proportion of the elderly population over 65 years old in Japan is as high as 22.8%, compared with 6.6% in Germany and only 2.9% in France.
Every time I have noticed that the silver-haired people in Japan are not only strongly involved in labor, they even play a role that is hard to imagine in other countries. In Japan, many start-up small and micro enterprises are actually supported by the elderly over 65 years old.
A survey report released by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry's Small and Medium Business Administration recently showed that about one-third of the newly-employed people in Japan are elderly people aged 60 and over, and this figure was only 8% 30 years ago.
According to the report, these self-employed seniors tend to use their professional experience to provide management consulting and other corporate services to their clients. According to a survey conducted by the Japan Policy Finance Corporation in 2014, elderly entrepreneurs are mainly engaged in medical, catering and hotel businesses, and nearly a quarter of them do not do their own business.
Older people have more money than young people. Entrepreneurs over the age of 55 have a savings of more than 10 million yen, so there is no need to worry about start-up funds. They have a wider network of contacts, more experience, and a more peaceful mindset. These advantages can help them to develop smoothly in the process of starting a business, and the probability of success is greater.
In Japan, eighty or ninety-year-old workers are becoming more common.
Pola, a make-up brand, said that there is no retirement age, and sales representatives can work indefinitely as long as they are willing. Among the company's 50,000 beauty directors, there are 5,500 in their 70s, 2,500 in their 80s, and 250 in their 90s. The 83-year-old store manager Sugiyama Daimiko is energetic enough to compete with young people, and recently a sales representative even celebrated his 100th birthday.
In addition, some highly dependent manufacturing processes require years of experience and intuition to reach a level of proficiency. Therefore, skilled workers over the retirement age are very popular with employers.
Korean case: The average elderly work to 71 years old
The "Hanjiang Miracle" of the Korean economy taking off is no stranger to us. At the same time, South Korea’s rapid advancement in health care and nutrition science is also impressive.
According to a report in the medical authority magazine Lancet, Korea's life expectancy is expected to exceed 90 in 2030, which will make South Korea surpass Japan to become the world's longest-lived country, and will also be the national health improvement rate since the process of human industrialization. The biggest performance.
But in this relatively economically affluent country, long-lived older people have found a paradox: the longer you live, the easier it is to fall into the trap of relative poverty.
According to the Korea Bureau of Statistics, in 2015, South Korea's aging population (over 65 years old) only accounted for 12.8% of the total population, and by 2060, this figure is expected to reach 41% of terror.
On the one hand, high housing prices and education costs make young Koreans afraid to have children easily; on the other hand, South Korea’s export-oriented economy relies heavily on labor-intensive industries. If there is no continuous supply of young labor, it will make South Korea’s international competitiveness Affected.
Aging has not only weakened the competitiveness of the Korean economy, but also made it necessary for the Korean government to reduce the scale of pensions. According to statistics, the average monthly pension for Korean people over the age of 60 is about 2,000 yuan, less than one-third of the minimum standard of living. South Korea has also become the country with the most serious poverty among the elderly in developed countries.
According to estimates, 48.7% of South Koreans over the age of 65 are in a state of relative poverty (revenue is less than 50% of the country's median income), compared with less than 2% in the Netherlands.
At the same time, about a quarter of the elderly in South Korea are currently living alone, lacking family support, and must rely on work to support themselves.
The legal retirement age in Korea is 60 years old. In fact, people who work until the age of 71 will not really rest. Retirement age is just the beginning of a new job.
The Korean government even held a "silver recruitment fair" for the elderly over 60 years old. The couriers, cleaners, sales staff and other positions were all open to the elderly.
Since people over the age of 65 can take the subway for free, taking the express delivery by subway has become a choice for many people. In China, the young and strong courier brother runs on the streets, while in South Korea, the white-haired courier is in the subway. At the same time, there are many elderly people who are doing heavy physical labor and dirty smelling sewer cleaning.
According to reports, due to factors such as fear of burdening children, the proportion of elderly people in Korea who have committed suicide by depression has soared from 34 per 100,000 in 2000 to 72 per 100,000.